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Stele of Hammurabi Laws

Law 238 states that a master, ship manager or charterer who has saved a ship from total loss is only required to pay half of the value of the ship to the shipowner. [175] [176] [177] In the Digesta seu Pandectae (533), the second volume of the codification of laws ordered by Justinian I (527-565) of the Eastern Roman Empire, a legal opinion of the Roman jurist Paul at the beginning of the crisis of the third century in 235 AD on the Lex Rhodia (“Rhodian law”) has been included, which articulates the general principle of the average of maritime insurance. that of the island of Rhodes around 1000 to 800 BC. AD as a member of the Doric hexapolis, plausible by the Phoenicians during the planned Doric invasion and emergence of the so-called Sea Peoples in the Greek Middle Ages (c. 1100 – c. 750), which led to the spread of the Doric-Greek dialect. [178] [179] [180] The law of the general average is the basic principle underlying all insurance. [179] The Code of Law of the Hammurabi Stele is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length that have been discovered. The Code of Hammurabi refers to a set of 282 rules or laws promulgated by the Babylonian king Hammurabi, who reigned from 1792 to 1750 BC. Wolfram von Soden, who decades earlier called this way of thinking enumerating science,[119] often denigrated it.

[120] However, recent authors such as Marc Van De Mieroop, Jean Bottero and Ann Guinan have either avoided value judgments or expressed admiration. Lists were at the heart of Mesopotamian science and logic, and their strong structural principles made it possible to generate endless entries. [118] The connection between the codex and the writing tradition in which the “science of lists” was born also explains why aspiring writers have copied and studied it for more than a millennium. [24] The codex appears at the end of the Babylonian (7th-6th century BC). List of literary and scientific texts. [121] No other body of law has been so firmly anchored in the curriculum. [122] Instead of a legal code, it can therefore be a scientific treatise. [100] Unlike the prologue, the 500-line epilogue explicitly refers to laws. [63] The epilogue begins (3144`–3151`): “These are the right decisions that Hammurabi has. (Dīnāt mīšarim ša ḫammurabi.

ukinnu-ma). He glorifies His laws and generosity (3152`–3239`). [65] He then expresses the hope that “every unjust man who has a complaint” (awīlum ḫablum ša awātam iraššû) can have the laws of the stele read to him and know his rights (3240`–3256`). [66] This would bring praise (3257`–3275`) and divine favor (3276`–3295`) to Hammurabi. [67] Hammurabi wished good luck to any leader who listened to his statements and respected his stele (3296`–3359`). [68] However, he invokes the wrath of the gods on anyone who disobeys his statements or erases them (3360`-3641`, the end of the text). [69] [Note 1] The black stone stele with the code of Hammurabi was carved from a single four-ton diorite plate, a durable stone but incredibly difficult to carve. Permanent Injunctions: The Babylonian Stele of Hammurabi Hammurabi, king of Babylon, united Mesopotamia and introduced the Code of Hammurabi, a comprehensive body of legislation that deals with almost all aspects of civil and criminality. The codex was considered the first collection of Mesopotamian law when it was discovered in 1902 – for example, C. H. W. Johns` 1903 book was entitled The Oldest Code of Laws in the World.

[31] The English writer H. G. Wells included Hammurabi in the first volume of The Outline of History, and also for Wells the code was “the oldest known codex.” [33] However, three earlier collections were later discovered: the Lipit-Ishtar Codex in 1947, the Laws of Eshnunna in 1948, and the Code of your-Nammu in 1952. [34] Early commentators dated Hammurabi and the stele to the 23rd century BC. [35] However, this is an estimate that predates what even the “ultra-long chronology” could support. The code was compiled towards the end of Hammurabi`s reign. [36] This was partly inferred from the list of his accomplishments in the prologue. [37] Other laws relate to military service or punishment for a judge who makes bad decisions.

Examples: The Hammurabi Codex also shows strong similarities with later collections of Mesopotamian law: to the casuistic laws of Middle Assyrian and to the Neo-Babylonian laws,[161] whose format is largely relative (“a man who… »). It is easier to directly influence these subsequent collections because the code survives thanks to the writing program. [24] Finally, although the influence is more difficult to trace, there is evidence that Hittite laws may have been part of the same legal writing tradition outside Mesopotamia. [162] The prologue and epilogue together constitute one-fifth of the text. On about 4,130 lines, the prologue consists of 300 lines and the epilogue 500. [17] They are ring-shaped around laws, although there is no visual break that distinguishes them from laws. [56] Both are written in poetic style,[57] and, as William W. Davies wrote, “contain much. which looks a lot like Braggadocio”.

[58] Fragments of a second and possibly a third stele recording the code were found with the Louvre stele in Susa. [23] More than fifty manuscripts containing the laws are known.