Science Laws Examples
Philosophers of science and metaphysicians deal with various questions about laws, but the fundamental question is: what is a law? Two influential responses are the systems approach (Lewis, 1973, 1983, 1986, 1994) and the universal approach (Armstrong, 1978, 1983, 1991, 1993). Other treatments include anti-realist (van Fraassen 1989, Giere 1999, Ward 2002, Mumford 2004) and anti-reductionist (Carroll 1994 and 2008, Lange 2000 and 2009, Maudlin 2007) views. In addition to the fundamental question, the recent literature has also focused on (i) whether laws are determined by facts, (ii) the role that laws play in the problem of induction, (iii) whether laws contain a strong form of necessity, and (iv) the role of laws in physics and how this contrasts with the role of laws in the specialized sciences. What happens next? How can philosophy overcome current debates about natural laws? Three topics are particularly interesting and important. The first concerns the question of whether legality is part of the content of scientific theories. This is a question that is often asked after causality, but less frequently after legislation. Roberts offers an analogy to support the idea that this is not the case: it is a postulate of Euclidean geometry that two points determine a line. But it is not part of the content of Euclidean geometry that this theorem is a postulate. Euclidean geometry is not a theory of postulates; It is a theory about points, lines and planes. (2008, 92).
This could be a plausible first step in understanding the absence of certain nomic terms in formal statements of scientific theories. The second question is whether there are contingent laws of nature. The Needers continue to work to complete their point of view, while Humeans and others pay relatively little attention to what they do; The new work must explain the source of the underlying obligations that divide these camps. Finally, more attention needs to be paid to the language used to account for what laws are and the language used to express the laws themselves and whether laws explain. It is clear that recent controversies over generalizations in physics and the specialized sciences revolve precisely around these questions, but their exploration can also bear fruit in key questions related to ontology, realism versus antirealism, and supervenience. Here are four reasons why philosophers examine what it means to be a law of nature: First, as noted above, laws seem to play at least a central role in scientific practice. Second, laws are important for many other philosophical issues. For example, philosophers, triggered by the presentation of the counterfactual narratives of Chisholm (1946, 1955) and Goodman (1947), as well as the deductive-nological explanatory model of Hempel and Oppenheim (1948), wondered what makes counterfactual and explanatory claims true, thought that laws matter, and thus also wondered what distinguishes laws from non-laws. Third, Goodman suggested that there is a link between legality and confirmation through inductive reasoning. Thus, some who sympathize with Goodman`s idea come to the problem of laws because of their interest in the problem of induction. Fourth, philosophers love good puzzles. Let us suppose that everyone is sitting here (cf.
Langford 1941, 67). Then, trivially, that everyone is sitting here is true. While true, this generalization does not appear to be law. It`s just too random. Einstein`s principle that no signal moves faster than light is also a true generalization, but on the other hand, it is thought to be a law; It`s not as random. What makes the difference? Some laws are only approximations of other more general laws and are good approximations with limited scope. For example, Newtonian dynamics (based on Galilean transformations) is the low-velocity limit of special relativity (since the Galilean transformation is the slow approximation of the Lorentz transformation). Similarly, Newton`s law of gravity is a low-mass approximation of general relativity, and Coulomb`s law is an approximation of long-range quantum electrodynamics (relative to the range of weak interactions). In such cases, it is customary to use simpler and approximate versions of the laws instead of the more specific general laws.