Non-Lethal Medical Definition
The Staff Stopping and Stimulation Response Rifle (PHASR) is a prototype non-lethal laser mixer developed by the Directorate of Directed Energy of the United States Department of Defense Air Force Research Laboratory.  Its purpose is to temporarily disorient and blind a target. Blinding laser weapons have been tested in the past, but have been banned under the 1995 United Nations Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons, to which the United States acceded on January 21, 2009.  The PHASR rifle, a low-intensity laser, is not prohibited under these Regulations as the glare is intended to be temporary. It also uses a two-wavelength laser.  The RASRP was tested at Kirtland Air Force Base, which is part of the Directorate of Directed Energy of the Air Force Research Laboratory in New Mexico. [ref. The Centre of Excellence on Human Effects was established to support and advise program managers on the likely impact of non-lethal technologies and associated risks. The approach used by the Human Effects Center of Excellence promotes a common language for non-lethal weapons to ensure consistent use of terminology within the Department of Defense community for non-lethal weapons. The centre also makes recommendations on laboratories or field activities that can collect scientific information if it is not already available. Non-lethal weapons are designed to minimize injury or death.
Although people are sometimes seriously injured or killed by these weapons, deaths are relatively rare. The causes of death from non-lethal weapons are varied and sometimes uncertain. Misplaced or bouncing shots, pre-existing conditions, inadequate user training, repetitive apps, and intentional abuse have been linked to deaths in several cases. [ref. needed] The psychological impact of non-lethal weapons can vary depending on the physical context in which they are used, whether the target is a crowd or an individual, whether or not the target is trained to anticipate or counter the effects of these weapons, or whether it is used in a crowd-control, counter-terrorism or battlefield situation. Camouflage and psychological operations do not belong to the realm of non-lethal weapons because they are conceptually and operationally different.24 Non-lethal weapons, also known as non-lethal weapons, called less lethal weapons, Less lethal weapons, non-lethal weapons, weapons of conformity, or weapons causing pain are weapons designed to kill a living target that is less likely than conventional weapons such as knives and firearms with live ammunition. It is often assumed that unintentional or accidental victims are in danger wherever force is used, but non-lethal weapons attempt to minimize the risk of loss (for example, serious/permanent injury or death) as much as possible. Non-lethal weapons are used in policing and combat situations to limit the escalation of conflicts where the use of lethal force is prohibited or undesirable, when rules of engagement require minimal casualties, or when policies restrict the use of conventional force. These weapons sometimes cause serious injury or death; The term “less lethal” has been favored by some organizations because it describes the risks of death more accurately than the term “non-fatal,” which some have argued is a misnomer.     For other non-lethal firearm officers, blackout foams can cause panic due to breathing difficulties associated with visual and hearing impairment.1 Little is documented about the psychological effects of other non-lethal weapons, and more research is needed in this area. Until the development of non-lethal weapons, police officers around the world had little or no non-lethal means to fight riots. Common police tactics, which should not be lethal or less deadly, included a wall of men advancing slowly with batons, mounted officers trained to handle police situations, or an attack on a riot with sabre plates.
Other reasonably successful approaches included shotguns with low-powered cartridges, “salt grenades,” the use of bean bag bullets, and bouncing from the ground. In the mid-20th century, with the integration of fire control systems in major cities, police determined that high-pressure fire hoses could be effective in dispersing crowds (the use of water cannons and fire trucks remained an effective, non-lethal tactic for dispersing riots). Trained police dogs were also frequently used to frighten and disperse rioters and arrest individuals. In the 1980s, the development of high-strength plastics such as Kevlar and Lexan revolutionized armor and personal shields, leading to new tactics for standby troops and other special teams. Police were now able to defend themselves against violent rioters who threw dangerous projectiles without resorting to lethal methods to quickly disperse the danger. Along with the introduction of effective non-lethal chemical warfare agents such as tear gas and offensive odorous grenades, as well as non-lethal impact projectiles such as rubber bullets and flexible batons, insurgency tactics were modified to rely less on violent responses to attacking rioters and more on a slow-moving return to the wall. with support officers firing non-lethal ammunition into the crowd to support the advance. prevent. [ref. needed] The Air Force Special Operations Command is experimenting with mounting an ADS on the battleship AC-130J Ghostrider to attack crowds or threatening individuals on the ground.
This is intended to give the combat ship a non-lethal option so that the crew has more operational possibilities. Due to the increasing number of missions in populated areas, the Air Force aims to deploy a system within 10 years to have enough aircraft with non-lethal systems.  The aircraft will apparently use the ADS II version.  Weapons intended to cause permanent blindness are prohibited by the 1995 United Nations Protocol on Indiscriminate Laser Weapons. The mixer is a non-lethal weapon designed to cause temporary blindness or disorientation and therefore does not fall under this protocol. [ref. needed] The Long Range Acoustic Device (LRAD) is an acoustic calling device developed by LRAD Corporation to send messages and alert tones over longer distances or at higher volumes than regular speakers. LRAD systems are used for long-distance communications in a variety of applications, including as a means of non-lethal and non-kinetic crowd control. Although they have been referred to as “sonic weapons” , DALRs are not inherently intended for military use. The round black devices on the roof of the Hummers of the NYPD Department are LRADs.
[ref. needed] HSV Technologies, Inc. (named after its founders, M. Schlesinger and Vernon; not to be confused with Holden Special Vehicles), formerly of San Diego, California, USA, then Port Orchard, WA, designed a non-lethal device that was featured in the 2002 TIME magazine article “Beyond the Rubber Bullet”. It is an electrolaser that uses ultraviolet laser beams of 193 nm and promises to immobilize living targets remotely without contact. An engine deactivation variant is intended to be used against electronic ignitions of cars with a 248 nm laser. The lead inventor, Eric Herr, died in 2008 and the company appears to have been dissolved, with its website no longer existing in September 2017.  In common usage, a combat weapon or less lethal launcher is a type of firearm used to fire “non-lethal” or “less lethal” munitions for the purpose of suppressing riots.
Less lethal launchers can be special firearms designed to fight riots, or standard firearms, usually shotguns and grenade launchers, which are suitable for riot control with appropriate ammunition. Ammunition is most commonly found in 12-gauge (.729 inch) shotguns and 37 mm and 40 mm (1.46 and 1.57 inch) grenade launchers. [ref. needed] In the past, the army and police, faced with an undesirable escalation of the conflict, had few acceptable options. Military personnel guarding embassies were often limited to carrying unloaded weapons. The National Guard or police forces responsible for quelling riots could only use batons or similar weapons resembling clubs, bayonet or sword attacks, or fire live ammunition into the crowd. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Non-Lethality Policy Review Group was established in the United States. The Global Strategic Council in Washington and other independent think tanks around the world called for concerted efforts to develop weapons that were more sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially responsible than the weapons available at the time.  United States.