Medicina Legal En El Mundo
In South America, there have also been senior representatives of forensic medicine and forensic psychiatry, and recently there has been a remarkable development in criminological sciences. In Colombia, since its foundation on February 3, 1827, the Faculty of Medicine of the National University of Bogotá has included forensic medicine among its chairs, being its first professor, Dr. José Félix Merizalde, and since then forensic medicine has been taught in the country and currently also in law faculties. In the twentieth century, in the Spanish-speaking world, among others, the following figures stand out: The work, as I have already said, is aimed at covering all fronts of forensic medicine, life and corpse, therefore, doctors in their maximum width will be able to solve 80% of the problems presented in this area, or in consultation with a general practitioner on the various medical specialties. If we start from the aphorism that what is normally scientifically correct is generally ethically correct, the content of the treaty will also resolve 90% of the questions that may arise in the field of ethics, which are increasingly contaminated by health law. In the clinical field, we do not want to compete with medical-pathological treatises, but in the field of toxicology, psychiatry and forensics, the reader will find answers to most of their requests. A comprehensive book that covers the complex world of forensic medicine in its various fields and objects of study. Faithful to the concept of the master, Professor Gisbert Calabuig, the authors have retained the objective of presenting a classic book in its structure and modern in its content, addressing the topics that most interest the doctor of today from the point of view of forensic medicine. Forensic medicine, also known as forensic medicine, medical jurisprudence or forensic medicine, is the branch of medicine that applies all the medical and biological knowledge necessary to solve the problems raised by the law. The coroner assists judges and courts in the administration of justice and determines the cause of injury or cause of death by examining a dead body. It examines the medical aspects arising from the day-to-day practice of the courts where they act as experts. It is closely linked to medical law.
The specialist in this field is called a coroner or coroner. E.V.: It is obvious that this book was originally written for opponents of the National Corps of Forensic Doctors and this objective has never been abandoned. At the time, it was a manual for medical students and now it is a professional book, for all legal and health actors. Our contract is increasingly focused on living medicine and out-of-court problem solving, which is why our potential clientele has grown extraordinarily. Similarly, the degrees and diplomas in which the questions of health law and forensic medicine, toxicology and forensic science are numerous today, so we did not want to do without chapters which, although still included in this book, are now maintained and expanded, cases of toxicology, forensics, forensic psychiatry, penal medicine, etc. Since 1822, there have been police doctors in the Argentine Republic who are subordinate to the federal police and have the task of lifting corpses at the scene of the incident and examining living persons). Since 1881, court doctors or coroners of the national judiciary have been dependent on the judiciary and are responsible for medico-legal autopsies and other opinions ordered by judges. The nineteenth century revolutionized forensic science because of the many advances that occurred. In Europe, the pioneer of forensic medicine was the Menorcan scientist Mateo Orfila, known as the father of toxicology, who published a treatise on legal exhumations in 1830 and a treatise on forensic medicine in 1847.  Among the outstanding figures of forensic medicine and the events that took place during this period, we can mention: Commonly called forensic medicine (forum: because in ancient times it was in forums or courts where this discipline was practiced), two schools are currently distinguished: the Latin school, in which forensic doctors are trained, and the Anglo-Saxon school, where forensic pathologists are trained.
Jean Jacques Bruhier carried out the first work on the first burials in 1742 and collected 189 presumed cases of burials during his lifetime. As a result, waiting rooms were built in Germany and Italy around 1793. During the same century, German scientist Georg Christoph Lichtenberg described the Lichtenberg figures, an important discovery that would later be relevant as a sign of outbreaks in the examination of corpses. In addition, Xavier Bichat made interesting descriptions about the process of death and elaborated what later became Bichat`s tripod of vital functions: circulation, breathing and nerve function. Pierre Hubert Nysten also pronounced the laws of rigidity of the corpse that bear his name. Jean-Jacques Belloc is considered the creator of forensic medicine in France. Forensic medicine first appeared in Germany in the sixteenth century: the Carolina Law promulgated by Charles V in 1532 obliged medical experts (mainly barber-surgeons of the time) to intervene in cases of intentional or involuntary murder of corpses and to impose a penalty proportional to the injuries. In 1536, Francis I of France drafted a decree for the Duke of Brittany, which regulated the beginnings of forensic medicine.  What is threatened today is the future, not of the specialty, but of forensic medicine in degree, and it will be much more serious. Who will focus on forensic medicine in the future, with such an uncertain panorama of legal certainty? -E.C.: The practice of the specialty has been developed in different countries according to their historical circumstances and legal criteria.
What is the organization/situation in Spain? In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the definitive consecration of forensic medicine was given as an independent discipline and as an auxiliary force of justice; Its development takes place at the same time as that of other sciences. The events preceding the definitive establishment of forensic medicine took place in Bamberg and Regensburg: in 1507 there was a comprehensive penal code in Germany, which was promoted by the Bishop of Bamberg and became known as the “Bamberg Ordinances”; In 1532, Emperor Charles V. Following the example of Bamberg in Regensburg, the “Carolinian penal constitutions”, in which detailed descriptions of forensic expertise are made and whose realization is necessary for certain crimes such as bodily harm, murder, abortion, infanticide and poisoning.