Legal Control of Pest Ppt
Inspections and quarantines are also conducted by some state and local government agencies. The California Border Patrol, for example, is notorious for intercepting uncertified agricultural products at the state border. Strict laws prohibiting individuals from bringing a bag of oranges into Southern California are generally recognized to exclude many species of pests that could have caused millions of dollars in losses. The price of these prevention efforts is only a fraction of the estimated $350 million Californians have spent to eliminate their recent infestation of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Inside, eradication is a more common goal. Enclosed environments tend to be smaller, less complex, and easier to control than outdoor environments. In many enclosed spaces, such as apartments; School; Office building; and health care, food processing and preparation facilities cannot or will not tolerate certain pests. Unfortunately, natural controls often don`t fight pests quickly or completely enough to prevent unacceptable injury or damage. Then other control measures must be taken. Available include: Q. What is a threshold? What are the thresholds to consider when developing a pest management strategy? R.
Thresholds are the levels of pest populations at which you must take pest management measures to avoid unacceptable damage or injury. Using threshold information can improve your pest management strategy by making a decision about when to start control tactics. Pheromones can be useful for monitoring pest populations. For example, placed in a trap. They can attract insects to a sampling area, so the number of parasites can be estimated. Pheromones can also be a control tool. Sometimes a manufactured copy of pheromone, which a female insect uses to attract males, can be used to confuse males and prevent mating, reducing the number of parasites. Applying juvenile hormones to an area can reduce pest numbers by preventing some immature pests from becoming normal and multiplying into adulthood. Host – A plant or animal on which a pest lives.
Juvenile hormones – Natural insect chemicals that prevent an insect`s early stages from turning into a normal adult form. Labelling – The pest control product label and other accompanying documents that include instructions for pesticide users to legally follow Mycoplasma – The smallest known living organisms that can multiply and exist separately from other living organisms. They get their food from plants. Nematodes – Small eels-like roundworms, mostly microscopic. Non-target organism – Any plant or animal, other than the pest that is the subject of pest control. Parasite – An organism that lives on, in or with another living organism to obtain food. Causative agent – An organism that causes disease in other organisms. Pheromones – chemicals emitted by one organism to influence the behaviour of other organisms of the same species. Predator – An organism that attacks, kills and feeds on other organisms.
Screening – Regularly research, identify and assess the number of pests and the damage they cause. Most treatment sites are disturbed to some extent by pest management strategies. The actions of any type of organism or component that share the site usually affect the actions and well-being of many others. If the balance is disturbed, some organisms can be destroyed or reduced in number, and others – sometimes pests – can dominate. A threshold is often set at the level at which economic losses from pest damage, if the pest population continues to grow, would exceed the cost of pest control. These types of action levels are sometimes referred to as “economic thresholds”. Monitoring of insects, relatives, molluscs and vertebrate pests is usually done by capture or tracking. Noxious weed monitoring is usually done by visual inspection.
Microbial pest surveillance is done by looking for injuries or damage. Weather conditions, especially temperature, length of day and humidity, affect pest activity and reproduction rate. Pests can be killed or suppressed by rain, sub-zero temperatures, drought or other adverse weather conditions. Climate also indirectly affects pests by affecting the growth and development of their hosts. A population of herbivorous pests is linked to the growth of their host plants. Unusual weather conditions can alter normal habits, causing increased or decreased damage. Q. What can you do to prevent the pests you want to control from becoming resistant to the pesticides you use? One. Pest resistance can be reduced through integrated pest management and rotation of pesticide types used. The availability of shelter may affect some pest populations. Wintering places and places where you can hide from predators are important for the survival of some parasites. Some plants, animals and structures are more resistant to pests than others.